# Markdown

## GitLab Flavored Markdown (GFM)

Note: Not all of the GitLab-specific extensions to Markdown that are described in this document currently work on our documentation website.

For the best result, we encourage you to check this document out as rendered by GitLab: markdown.md

GitLab uses the Redcarpet Ruby library for Markdown processing.

GitLab uses "GitLab Flavored Markdown" (GFM). It extends the standard Markdown in a few significant ways to add some useful functionality. It was inspired by GitHub Flavored Markdown.

You can use GFM in the following areas:

• issues
• merge requests
• milestones
• snippets (the snippet must be named with a .md extension)
• wiki pages
• markdown documents inside the repository

You can also use other rich text files in GitLab. You might have to install a dependency to do so. Please see the github-markup gem readme for more information.

### Newlines

If this is not rendered correctly, see https://gitlab.com/gitlab-org/gitlab-ce/blob/master/doc/user/markdown.md#newlines

GFM honors the markdown specification in how paragraphs and line breaks are handled.

A paragraph is simply one or more consecutive lines of text, separated by one or more blank lines. Line-breaks, or softreturns, are rendered if you end a line with two or more spaces:

Roses are red [followed by two or more spaces]
Violets are blue

Sugar is sweet


Roses are red
Violets are blue

Sugar is sweet

### Multiple underscores in words

If this is not rendered correctly, see https://gitlab.com/gitlab-org/gitlab-ce/blob/master/doc/user/markdown.md#multiple-underscores-in-words

It is not reasonable to italicize just part of a word, especially when you're dealing with code and names that often appear with multiple underscores. Therefore, GFM ignores multiple underscores in words:

perform_complicated_task

do_this_and_do_that_and_another_thing


do_this_and_do_that_and_another_thing

If this is not rendered correctly, see https://gitlab.com/gitlab-org/gitlab-ce/blob/master/doc/user/markdown.md#url-auto-linking

GFM will autolink almost any URL you copy and paste into your text:

* https://www.google.com
* ftp://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/
* smb://foo/bar/baz
* irc://irc.freenode.net/gitlab
* http://localhost:3000


### Multiline Blockquote

If this is not rendered correctly, see https://gitlab.com/gitlab-org/gitlab-ce/blob/master/doc/user/markdown.md#multiline-blockquote

On top of standard Markdown blockquotes, which require prepending > to quoted lines, GFM supports multiline blockquotes fenced by >>>:

>>>
If you paste a message from somewhere else

that

spans

multiple lines,

you can quote that without having to manually prepend > to every line!
>>>


If you paste a message from somewhere else

that

spans

multiple lines,

you can quote that without having to manually prepend > to every line!

### Code and Syntax Highlighting

If this is not rendered correctly, see https://gitlab.com/gitlab-org/gitlab-ce/blob/master/doc/user/markdown.md#code-and-syntax-highlighting

GitLab uses the Rouge Ruby library for syntax highlighting. For a list of supported languages visit the Rouge website.

Blocks of code are either fenced by lines with three back-ticks , or are indented with four spaces. Only the fenced code blocks support syntax highlighting:

Inline code has back-ticks around it.


Inline code has back-ticks around it.

Example:

javascript
var s = "JavaScript syntax highlighting";


python
def function():
#indenting works just fine in the fenced code block
s = "Python syntax highlighting"
print s


ruby
require 'redcarpet'
markdown = Redcarpet.new("Hello World!")
puts markdown.to_html



No language indicated, so no syntax highlighting.
s = "There is no highlighting for this."
But let's throw in a <b>tag</b>.



becomes:

var s = "JavaScript syntax highlighting";

def function():
#indenting works just fine in the fenced code block
s = "Python syntax highlighting"
print s

require 'redcarpet'
markdown = Redcarpet.new("Hello World!")
puts markdown.to_html

No language indicated, so no syntax highlighting.
s = "There is no highlighting for this."
But let's throw in a <b>tag</b>.


### Inline Diff

If this is not rendered correctly, see https://gitlab.com/gitlab-org/gitlab-ce/blob/master/doc/user/markdown.md#inline-diff

With inline diffs tags you can display additions or deletions .

The wrapping tags can be either curly braces or square brackets additions or deletions .

However the wrapping tags cannot be mixed as such:

• {- deletions -]
• [- deletions -}

### Emoji

If this is not rendered correctly, see https://gitlab.com/gitlab-org/gitlab-ce/blob/master/doc/user/markdown.md#emoji

Sometimes you want to :monkey: around a bit and add some :star2: to your :speech_balloon:. Well we have a gift for you:

:zap: You can use emoji anywhere GFM is supported. :v:

You can use it to point out a :bug: or warn about :speak_no_evil: patches. And if someone improves your really :snail: code, send them some :birthday:. People will :heart: you for that.

If you are new to this, don't be :fearful:. You can easily join the emoji :family:. All you need to do is to look up on the supported codes.

Consult the [Emoji Cheat Sheet](http://emoji.codes) for a list of all supported emoji codes. :thumbsup:


Sometimes you want to around a bit and add some to your . Well we have a gift for you:

You can use emoji anywhere GFM is supported.

You can use it to point out a or warn about patches. And if someone improves your really code, send them some . People will you for that.

If you are new to this, don't be . You can easily join the emoji . All you need to do is to look up on the supported codes.

Consult the Emoji Cheat Sheet for a list of all supported emoji codes.

### Special GitLab References

GFM recognizes special references.

You can easily reference e.g. an issue, a commit, a team member or even the whole team within a project.

GFM will turn that reference into a link so you can navigate between them easily.

GFM will recognize the following:

input references
@user_name specific user
@group_name specific group
@all entire team
#123 issue
!123 merge request
$123 snippet ~123 label by ID ~bug one-word label by name ~"feature request" multi-word label by name %123 milestone by ID %v1.23 one-word milestone by name %"release candidate" multi-word milestone by name 9ba12248 specific commit 9ba12248...b19a04f5 commit range comparison [README](doc/README) repository file references GFM also recognizes certain cross-project references: input references namespace/project#123 issue namespace/project!123 merge request namespace/project%123 milestone namespace/project$123 snippet
namespace/project@9ba12248 specific commit
namespace/project@9ba12248...b19a04f5 commit range comparison
namespace/project~"Some label" issues with given label

It also has a shorthand version to reference other projects from the same namespace:

input references
project#123 issue
project!123 merge request
project%123 milestone
project$123 snippet project@9ba12248 specific commit project@9ba12248...b19a04f5 commit range comparison project~"Some label" issues with given label ### Task Lists If this is not rendered correctly, see https://gitlab.com/gitlab-org/gitlab-ce/blob/master/doc/user/markdown.md#task-lists You can add task lists to issues, merge requests and comments. To create a task list, add a specially-formatted Markdown list, like so: - [x] Completed task - [ ] Incomplete task - [ ] Sub-task 1 - [x] Sub-task 2 - [ ] Sub-task 3  • Completed task • Incomplete task • Sub-task 1 • Sub-task 2 • Sub-task 3 Tasks formatted as ordered lists are supported as well: 1. [x] Completed task 1. [ ] Incomplete task 1. [ ] Sub-task 1 1. [x] Sub-task 2  1. Completed task 2. Incomplete task 1. Sub-task 1 2. Sub-task 2 Task lists can only be created in descriptions, not in titles. Task item state can be managed by editing the description's Markdown or by toggling the rendered check boxes. ### Videos If this is not rendered correctly, see https://gitlab.com/gitlab-org/gitlab-ce/blob/master/doc/user/markdown.md#videos Image tags with a video extension are automatically converted to a video player. The valid video extensions are .mp4, .m4v, .mov, .webm, and .ogv. Here's a sample video: ![Sample Video](img/markdown_video.mp4)  Here's a sample video: ### Math If this is not rendered correctly, see https://gitlab.com/gitlab-org/gitlab-ce/blob/master/doc/user/markdown.md#math It is possible to have math written with the LaTeX syntax rendered using KaTeX. Math written inside $$ will be rendered inline with the text. Math written inside triple back quotes, with the language declared as math, will be rendered on a separate line. Example: This math is inline$a^2+b^2=c^2\$.

This is on a separate line
math
a^2+b^2=c^2



Becomes:

This math is inline a^2+b^2=c^2.

This is on a separate line

a^2+b^2=c^2


Be advised that KaTeX only supports a subset of LaTeX.

Note: This also works for the asciidoctor :stem: latexmath. For details see the asciidoctor user manual.

## Standard Markdown

# H1
## H2
### H3
#### H4
##### H5
###### H6

Alternatively, for H1 and H2, an underline-ish style:

Alt-H1
======

Alt-H2
------


On hover a link to those IDs becomes visible to make it easier to copy the link to the header to give it to someone else.

The IDs are generated from the content of the header according to the following rules:

1. All text is converted to lowercase
2. All non-word text (e.g., punctuation, HTML) is removed
3. All spaces are converted to hyphens
4. Two or more hyphens in a row are converted to one
5. If a header with the same ID has already been generated, a unique incrementing number is appended, starting at 1.

For example:

# This header has spaces in it
## This header has a :thumbsup: in it
# This header has Unicode in it: 한글
## This header has spaces in it
### This header has spaces in it


Would generate the following link IDs:

1. this-header-has-spaces-in-it
2. this-header-has-a-in-it
3. this-header-has-unicode-in-it-한글
4. this-header-has-spaces-in-it
5. this-header-has-spaces-in-it-1

Note that the Emoji processing happens before the header IDs are generated, so the Emoji is converted to an image which then gets removed from the ID.

### Emphasis

Emphasis, aka italics, with *asterisks* or _underscores_.

Strong emphasis, aka bold, with **asterisks** or __underscores__.

Combined emphasis with **asterisks and _underscores_**.

Strikethrough uses two tildes. ~~Scratch this.~~


Emphasis, aka italics, with asterisks or underscores.

Strong emphasis, aka bold, with asterisks or underscores.

Combined emphasis with asterisks and underscores.

Strikethrough uses two tildes. Scratch this.

### Lists

1. First ordered list item
2. Another item
* Unordered sub-list.
1. Actual numbers don't matter, just that it's a number
1. Ordered sub-list
4. And another item.

* Unordered list can use asterisks
- Or minuses
+ Or pluses

1. First ordered list item
2. Another item
• Unordered sub-list.
3. Actual numbers don't matter, just that it's a number
1. Ordered sub-list
4. And another item.
• Unordered list can use asterisks
• Or minuses
• Or pluses

If a list item contains multiple paragraphs, each subsequent paragraph should be indented with four spaces.

1.  First ordered list item

Second paragraph of first item.
2.  Another item

1. First ordered list item

Second paragraph of first item.

2. Another item

If the second paragraph isn't indented with four spaces, the second list item will be incorrectly labeled as 1.

1. First ordered list item

Second paragraph of first item.
2. Another item

1. First ordered list item

Second paragraph of first item.

1. Another item

There are two ways to create links, inline-style and reference-style.

[I'm an inline-style link](https://www.google.com)

[I'm a reference-style link][Arbitrary case-insensitive reference text]

[I'm a relative reference to a repository file](LICENSE)

[I am an absolute reference within the repository](/doc/user/markdown.md)

[I link to the Milestones page](/../milestones)

[You can use numbers for reference-style link definitions][1]

Or leave it empty and use the [link text itself][]

[arbitrary case-insensitive reference text]: https://www.mozilla.org
[1]: http://slashdot.org


I am an absolute reference within the repository

I link to the Milestones page

You can use numbers for reference-style link definitions

Or leave it empty and use the link text itself

Note

Relative links do not allow referencing project files in a wiki page or wiki page in a project file. The reason for this is that, in GitLab, wiki is always a separate git repository. For example:

[I'm a reference-style link](style)

will point the link to wikis/style when the link is inside of a wiki markdown file.

### Images

Here's our logo (hover to see the title text):

Inline-style:
![alt text](img/markdown_logo.png)

Reference-style:
![alt text1][logo]

[logo]: img/markdown_logo.png


Here's our logo:

Inline-style:

Reference-style:

### Blockquotes

> Blockquotes are very handy in email to emulate reply text.
> This line is part of the same quote.

Quote break.

> This is a very long line that will still be quoted properly when it wraps. Oh boy let's keep writing to make sure this is long enough to actually wrap for everyone. Oh, you can *put* **Markdown** into a blockquote.


Blockquotes are very handy in email to emulate reply text. This line is part of the same quote.

Quote break.

This is a very long line that will still be quoted properly when it wraps. Oh boy let's keep writing to make sure this is long enough to actually wrap for everyone. Oh, you can put Markdown into a blockquote.

### Inline HTML

You can also use raw HTML in your Markdown, and it'll mostly work pretty well.

See the documentation for HTML::Pipeline's SanitizationFilter class for the list of allowed HTML tags and attributes. In addition to the default SanitizationFilter whitelist, GitLab allows span elements.

<dl>
<dt>Definition list</dt>
<dd>Is something people use sometimes.</dd>

<dt>Markdown in HTML</dt>
<dd>Does *not* work **very** well. Use HTML <em>tags</em>.</dd>
</dl>

Definition list
Is something people use sometimes.
Markdown in HTML
Does *not* work **very** well. Use HTML tags.

### Horizontal Rule

Three or more...

---

Hyphens

***

Asterisks

___

Underscores


Three or more...

Hyphens

Asterisks

Underscores

### Line Breaks

My basic recommendation for learning how line breaks work is to experiment and discover -- hit <Enter> once (i.e., insert one newline), then hit it twice (i.e., insert two newlines), see what happens. You'll soon learn to get what you want. "Markdown Toggle" is your friend.

Here are some things to try out:

Here's a line for us to start with.

This line is separated from the one above by two newlines, so it will be a *separate paragraph*.

This line is also a separate paragraph, but...
This line is only separated by a single newline, so it's a separate line in the *same paragraph*.

This line is also a separate paragraph, and...
This line is on its own line, because the previous line ends with two
spaces.


This line is separated from the one above by two newlines, so it will be a separate paragraph.

This line is also begins a separate paragraph, but... This line is only separated by a single newline, so it's a separate line in the same paragraph.

This line is also a separate paragraph, and... This line is on its own line, because the previous line ends with two spaces.

### Tables

Tables aren't part of the core Markdown spec, but they are part of GFM and Markdown Here supports them.

| header 1 | header 2 |
| -------- | -------- |
| cell 1   | cell 2   |
| cell 3   | cell 4   |


Code above produces next output:

cell 1 cell 2
cell 3 cell 4

Note

The row of dashes between the table header and body must have at least three dashes in each column.

By including colons in the header row, you can align the text within that column:

| Left Aligned | Centered | Right Aligned | Left Aligned | Centered | Right Aligned |
| :----------- | :------: | ------------: | :----------- | :------: | ------------: |
| Cell 1       | Cell 2   | Cell 3        | Cell 4       | Cell 5   | Cell 6        |
| Cell 7       | Cell 8   | Cell 9        | Cell 10      | Cell 11  | Cell 12       |

Left Aligned Centered Right Aligned Left Aligned Centered Right Aligned
Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6
Cell 7 Cell 8 Cell 9 Cell 10 Cell 11 Cell 12

### Footnotes

You can add footnotes to your text as follows.[^2]
[^2]: This is my awesome footnote.


## Wiki-specific Markdown

The following examples show how links inside wikis behave.

### Wiki - Direct page link

A link which just includes the slug for a page will point to that page, at the base level of the wiki.

This snippet would link to a documentation page at the root of your wiki:

[Link to Documentation](documentation)


### Wiki - Direct file link

Links with a file extension point to that file, relative to the current page.

If this snippet was placed on a page at <your_wiki>/documentation/related, it would link to <your_wiki>/documentation/file.md:

[Link to File](file.md)


A link can be constructed relative to the current wiki page using ./<page>, ../<page>, etc.

• If this snippet was placed on a page at <your_wiki>/documentation/main, it would link to <your_wiki>/documentation/related:

[Link to Related Page](./related)

• If this snippet was placed on a page at <your_wiki>/documentation/related/content, it would link to <your_wiki>/documentation/main:

[Link to Related Page](../main)

• If this snippet was placed on a page at <your_wiki>/documentation/main, it would link to <your_wiki>/documentation/related.md:

[Link to Related Page](./related.md)

• If this snippet was placed on a page at <your_wiki>/documentation/related/content, it would link to <your_wiki>/documentation/main.md:

[Link to Related Page](../main.md)


A link starting with a / is relative to the wiki root.

• This snippet links to <wiki_root>/documentation:

[Link to Related Page](/documentation)

• This snippet links to <wiki_root>/miscellaneous.md:

[Link to Related Page](/miscellaneous.md)
`

## References

1. This link will be broken if you see this document from the Help page or docs.gitlab.com

2. This is my awesome footnote.